Order from disorder phenomena in BaCoS2

Lenz B., At T N ≃ 300K the layered insulator BaCoS2 transitions to a columnar antiferromagnet that signals non-negligible magnetic frustration despite the relatively high T N, all the more surprising given its quasi two-dimensional structure. Here, we show, by combining ab initio and model calculations, that the magnetic transition is an order-from-disorder phenomenon, which not only drives the columnar magnetic order, but also the inter-layer coherence responsible for the finite Néel transition temperature. This uncommon ordering mechanism, actively contributed by orbital degrees of freedom, hints at an abundance of low energy excitations above and across the Néel transition, in agreement with experimental evidence.

Entanglement asymmetry in CFT and its relation to non-topological defects

Fossati M., Ares F., Dubail J., The entanglement asymmetry is an information based observable that quantifies the degree of symmetry breaking in a region of an extended quantum system. We investigate this measure in the ground state of one dimensional critical systems described by a CFT. Employing the correspondence between global symmetries and defects, the analysis of the entanglement asymmetry can be formulated in terms of partition functions on Riemann surfaces with multiple non-topological defect lines inserted at their branch cuts. For large subsystems, these partition functions are determined by the scaling dimension of the defects. This leads to our first main observation: at criticality, the entanglement asymmetry acquires a subleading contribution scaling as log ℓ/ℓ for large subsystem length ℓ. Then, as an illustrative example, we consider the XY spin chain, which has a critical line described by the massless Majorana fermion theory and explicitly breaks the U(1) symmetry associated with rotations about the z-axis. In this situation the corresponding defect is marginal. Leveraging conformal invariance, we relate the scaling dimension of these defects to the ground state energy of the massless Majorana fermion on a circle with equally-spaced point defects. We exploit this mapping to derive our second main result: the exact expression for the scaling dimension associated with n defects of arbitrary strengths. Our result generalizes a known formula for the n = 1 case derived in several previous works. We then use this exact scaling dimension to derive our third main result: the exact prefactor of the log ℓ/ℓ term in the asymmetry of the critical XY chain.

Network science: Ising states of matter

Sun H., Panda R.K., Verdel R., Rodriguez A., Network science provides very powerful tools for extracting information from interacting data. Although recently the unsupervised detection of phases of matter using machine learning has raised significant interest, the full prediction power of network science has not yet been systematically explored in this context. Here we fill this gap by providing an in-depth statistical, combinatorial, geometrical, and topological characterization of 2D Ising snapshot networks (IsingNets) extracted from Monte Carlo simulations of the 2D Ising model at different temperatures, going across the phase transition. Our analysis reveals the complex organization properties of IsingNets in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases and demonstrates the significant deviations of the IsingNets with respect to randomized null models. In particular percolation properties of the IsingNets reflect the existence of the symmetry between configurations with opposite magnetization below the critical temperature and the very compact nature of the two emerging giant clusters revealed by our persistent homology analysis of the IsingNets. Moreover, the IsingNets display a very broad degree distribution and significant degree-degree correlations and weight-degree correlations demonstrating that they encode relevant information present in the configuration space of the 2D Ising model. The geometrical organization of the critical IsingNets is reflected in their spectral properties deviating from the one of the null model. This work reveals the important insights that network science can bring to the characterization of phases of matter. The set of tools described hereby can be applied as well to numerical and experimental data.

Parent Hamiltonian Reconstruction via Inverse Quantum Annealing

Rattacaso D., Passarelli G., Russomanno A., Lucignano P., Finding a local Hamiltonian H^ that has a given many-body wave function |ψ.

Many-Body Dynamics in Monitored Atomic Gases without Postselection Barrier

Passarelli G., Turkeshi X., Russomanno A., Lucignano P., Schirò M., We study the properties of a monitored ensemble of atoms driven by a laser field and in the presence of collective decay. The properties of the quantum trajectories describing the atomic cloud drastically depend on the monitoring protocol and are distinct from those of the average density matrix. By varying the strength of the external drive, a measurement-induced phase transition occurs separating two phases with entanglement entropy scaling subextensively with the system size. Incidentally, the critical point coincides with the superradiance transition of the trajectory-averaged dynamics. Our setup is implementable in current light-matter interaction devices, and most notably, the monitored dynamics is free from the postselection measurement problem, even in the case of imperfect monitoring.

Krylov complexity of modular Hamiltonian evolution

Caputa P., Magan J.M., Patramanis D., We investigate the complexity of states and operators evolved with the modular Hamiltonian by using the Krylov basis. In the first part, we formulate the problem for states and analyze different examples, including quantum mechanics, two-dimensional conformal field theories and random modular Hamiltonians, focusing on relations with the entanglement spectrum. We find that the modular Lanczos spectrum provides a different approach to quantum entanglement, opening new avenues in many-body systems and holography. In the second part, we focus on the modular evolution of operators and states excited by local operators in two-dimensional conformal field theories. We find that, at late modular time, the spread complexity is universally governed by the modular Lyapunov exponent λLmod=2π and is proportional to the local temperature of the modular Hamiltonian. Our analysis provides explicit examples where entanglement entropy is indeed not enough; however the entanglement spectrum is, and encodes the same information as complexity.

More on symmetry resolved operator entanglement

Murciano S., Dubail J., The ‘operator entanglement’ of a quantum operator O is a useful indicator of its complexity, and, in one-dimension, of its approximability by matrix product operators. Here we focus on spin chains with a global U(1) conservation law, and on operators O with a well-defined U(1) charge, for which it is possible to resolve the operator entanglement of O according to the U(1) symmetry. We employ the notion of symmetry resolved operator entanglement (SROE) introduced in Rath et al (2023 PRX Quantum 4 010318) and extend the results of the latter paper in several directions. Using a combination of conformal field theory and of exact analytical and numerical calculations in critical free fermionic chains, we study the SROE of the thermal density matrix ρ β = e − β H and of charged local operators evolving in Heisenberg picture O = e i t H O e − i t H . Our main results are: i) the SROE of ρ β obeys the operator area law; ii) for free fermions, local operators in Heisenberg picture can have a SROE that grows logarithmically in time or saturates to a constant value; iii) there is equipartition of the entanglement among all the charge sectors except for a pair of fermionic creation and annihilation operators.

Critical Casimir forces in soft matter

We review recent advances in the theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of critical Casimir forces in soft matter, with particular emphasis on their relevance for the structures of colloidal suspensions and on their dynamics. Distinct from other interactions which act in soft matter, such as electrostatic and van der Waals forces, critical Casimir forces are effective interactions characterised by the possibility to control reversibly their strength via minute temperature changes, while their attractive or repulsive character is conveniently determined via surface treatments or by structuring the involved surfaces. These features make critical Casimir forces excellent candidates for controlling the equilibrium and dynamical properties of individual colloids or colloidal dispersions as well as for possible applications in micro-mechanical systems. In the past 25 years a number of theoretical and experimental studies have been devoted to investigating these forces primarily under thermal equilibrium conditions, while their dynamical and non-equilibrium behaviour is a largely unexplored subject open for future investigations.

Stochastic thermodynamics of a probe in a fluctuating correlated field

Venturelli D., Loos S.A.M., Walter B., Roldán É., We develop a framework for the stochastic thermodynamics of a probe coupled to a fluctuating medium with spatio-temporal correlations, described by a scalar field. For a Brownian particle dragged by a harmonic trap through a fluctuating Gaussian field, we show that near criticality (where the field displays long-range spatial correlations) the spatially-resolved average heat flux develops a dipolar structure, where heat is absorbed in front and dissipated behind the dragged particle. Moreover, a perturbative calculation reveals that the dissipated power displays three distinct dynamical regimes depending on the drag velocity.

Quantifying nonstabilizerness through entanglement spectrum flatness

Tirrito E., Tarabunga P.S., Lami G., Chanda T., Leone L., Oliviero S.F.E., Nonstabilizerness, also colloquially referred to as magic, is a resource for advantage in quantum computing and lies in the access to non-Clifford operations. Developing a comprehensive understanding of how nonstabilizerness can be quantified and how it relates to other quantum resources is crucial for studying and characterizing the origin of quantum complexity. In this work, we establish a direct connection between nonstabilizerness and entanglement spectrum flatness for a pure quantum state. We show that this connection can be exploited to efficiently probe nonstabilizerness even in the presence of noise. Our results reveal a direct connection between nonstabilizerness and entanglement response, and define a clear experimental protocol to probe nonstabilizerness in cold atom and solid-state platforms.

Riemann zeros as quantized energies of scattering with impurities

LeClair A., We construct an integrable physical model of a single particle scattering with impurities spread on a circle. The S-matrices of the scattering with the impurities are such that the quantized energies of this system, coming from the Bethe Ansatz equations, correspond to the imaginary parts of the non-trivial zeros of the the Riemann ζ(s) function along the axis of the complex s-plane. A simple and natural generalization of the original scattering problem leads instead to Bethe Ansatz equations whose solutions are the non-trivial zeros of the Dirichlet L-functions again along the axis. The conjecture that all the non-trivial zeros of these functions are aligned along this axis of the complex s-plane is known as the Generalised Riemann Hypothesis (GRH). In the language of the scattering problem analysed in this paper the validity of the GRH is equivalent to the completeness of the Bethe Ansatz equations. Moreover the idea that the validity of the GRH requires both the duality equation (i.e. the mapping s → 1 – s) and the Euler product representation of the Dirichlet L-functions finds additional and novel support from the physical scattering model analysed in this paper. This is further illustrated by an explicit counterexample provided by the solutions of the Bethe Ansatz equations which employ the Davenport-Heilbronn function, i.e. a function whose completion satisfies the duality equation χ(s) = χ(1 – s) but that does not have an Euler product representation. In this case, even though there are infinitely many solutions of the Bethe Ansatz equations along the axis, there are also infinitely many pairs of solutions away from this axis and symmetrically placed with respect to it.

Thermalization of long range Ising model in different dynamical regimes: A full counting statistics approach

Ranabhat N., We study the thermalization of the transverse field Ising chain with a power law decaying interaction ∼ 1/rα following a global quantum quench of the transverse field in two different dynamical regimes. The thermalization behavior is quantified by comparing the full probability distribution function (PDF) of the evolving states with the corresponding thermal state given by the canonical Gibbs ensemble (CGE). To this end, we used the matrix product state (MPS)-based Time Dependent Variational Principle (TDVP) algorithm to simulate both real time evolution following a global quantum quench and the finite temperature density operator. We observe that thermalization is strongly suppressed in the region with strong confinement for all interaction strengths α, whereas thermalization occurs in the region with weak confinement.

Logarithmic negativity of the 1D antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg model with single-ion anisotropy

Papoyan V.V., Gori G., Papoyan V.V., We study the 1D antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg XXX model with external magnetic field B and single-ion anisotropy D on finite chains. We determine the nearest and non-nearest neighbor logarithmic entanglement LN. Our main result is the disappearance of LN both for nearest and non-nearest neighbor (next-nearest and next-next-nearest) sites at zero temperature and for low-temperature states. Such disappearance occurs at a critical value of B and D. The resulting phase diagram for the behavior of LN is discussed in the B−D plane, including a separating line – ending in a triple point – where the energy density is independent on the size. Finally, results for LN at finite temperature as a function of B and D are presented and commented.

Form factors of the tricritical three-state Potts model in its scaling limit

We compute the form factors of the order and disorder operators, together with those of the stress-energy tensor, of a two-dimensional three-state Potts model with vacancies along its thermal deformation at the critical point. At criticality, the model is described by the non-diagonal partition function of the unitary minimal model M 6 , 7 of conformal field theories and is accompanied by an internal S 3 symmetry. The off-critical thermal deformation is an integrable massive theory that is still invariant under S 3. The presence of infinitely many conserved quantities, whose spin spectrum is related to the exceptional Lie algebra E 6, allows us to determine the analytic S-matrix, the exact mass spectrum and the matrix elements of local operators of this model in an exact non-perturbative way. We use the spectral representation series of the correlators and the fast convergence of these series to compute several universal ratios of the renormalization group.

Thermoelectric transport across a tunnel contact between two charge Kondo circuits: Beyond perturbation theory

Nguyen T.K.T., Nguyen H.Q., Following a theoretical proposal on multi-impurity charge Kondo circuits [T. K. T. Nguyen and M. N. Kiselev, Phys. Rev. B 97, 085403 (2018)2469-995010.1103/PhysRevB.97.085403] and the experimental breakthrough in fabrication of the two-site Kondo simulator [W. Pouse, Nat. Phys. 19, 492 (2023)10.1038/s41567-022-01905-4] we investigate a thermoelectric transport through a double-dot charge Kondo quantum nanodevice in the strong coupling operational regime. We focus on the fingerprints of the non-Fermi liquid and its manifestation in the charge and heat quantum transport. We construct a full-fledged quantitative theory describing crossovers between different regimes of the multichannel charge Kondo quantum circuits and discuss possible experimental realizations of the theory.

Time evolution of entanglement entropy after quenches in two-dimensional free fermion systems: A dimensional reduction treatment

Yamashika S., Ares F., We study the time evolution of the Rényi entanglement entropies following a quantum quench in a two-dimensional (2D) free fermion system. By employing dimensional reduction, we effectively transform the 2D problem into decoupled chains, a technique applicable when the system exhibits translational invariance in one direction. Various initial configurations are examined, revealing that the behavior of entanglement entropies can often be explained by adapting the one-dimensional quasiparticle picture. However, intriguingly, for specific initial states the entanglement entropy saturates to a finite value without the reduced density matrix converging to a stationary state. We discuss the conditions necessary for a stationary state to exist and delve into the necessary modifications to the quasiparticle picture when such a state is absent.

Quasilocal entanglement across the Mott-Hubbard transition

Bellomia G., Mejuto-Zaera C., The possibility to directly measure, in a cold-atom quantum simulator, the von Neumann entropy and mutual information between a site and its environment opens new perspectives on the characterization of the Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition, in the framework of quantum information theory. In this work, we provide an alternative view of the Mott transition in the two-dimensional Hubbard model in terms of rigorous quasilocal measures of entanglement and correlation between two spatially separated electronic orbitals, with no contribution from their environment. A space-resolved analysis of cluster dynamical mean-field theory results elucidates the prominent role of the nearest-neighbor entanglement in probing Mott localization: both its lower and upper bounds sharply increase at the metal-insulator transition. The two-site entanglement beyond nearest neighbors is shown to be quickly damped as the intersite distance is increased. These results ultimately resolve a conundrum of previous analyses based on the single-site von Neumann entropy, which has been found to monotonically decrease when the interaction is increased. The quasilocal two-site entanglement recovers instead the distinctive character of Mott insulators as strongly correlated quantum states, demonstrating its central role in the 2d Hubbard model.

Topological Kolmogorov complexity and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism

Vitale V., Mendes-Santos T., Rodriguez A., Topology plays a fundamental role in our understanding of many-body physics, from vortices and solitons in classical field theory to phases and excitations in quantum matter. Topological phenomena are intimately connected to the distribution of information content that, differently from ordinary matter, is now governed by nonlocal degrees of freedom. However, a precise characterization of how topological effects govern the complexity of a many-body state, i.e., its partition function, is presently unclear. In this paper, we show how topology and complexity are directly intertwined concepts in the context of classical statistical mechanics. We concretely present a theory that shows how the Kolmogorov complexity of a classical partition function sampling carries unique, distinctive features depending on the presence of topological excitations in the system. We confront two-dimensional Ising, Heisenberg, and XY models on several topologies and study the corresponding samplings as high-dimensional manifolds in configuration space, quantifying their complexity via the intrinsic dimension. While for the Ising and Heisenberg models the intrinsic dimension is independent of the real-space topology, for the XY model it depends crucially on temperature: across the Berezkinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition, complexity becomes topology dependent. In the BKT phase, it displays a characteristic dependence on the homology of the real-space manifold, and, for g-torii, it follows a scaling that is solely genus dependent. We argue that this behavior is intimately connected to the emergence of an order parameter in data space, the conditional connectivity, which displays scaling behavior. Our approach paves the way for an understanding of topological phenomena emergent from many-body interactions from the perspective of Kolmogorov complexity.

Non-equilibrium entanglement asymmetry for discrete groups: the example of the XY spin chain

Ferro F., Ares F., Entanglement asymmetry is a novel quantity that, using entanglement methods, measures how much a symmetry is broken in a part of an extended quantum system. So far, it has only been used to characterise the breaking of continuous Abelian symmetries. In this paper, we extend the concept to cyclic Z N groups. As an application, we consider the XY spin chain, in which the ground state spontaneously breaks the Z 2 spin parity symmetry in the ferromagnetic phase. We thoroughly investigate the non-equilibrium dynamics of this symmetry after a global quantum quench, generalising known results for the standard order parameter.

Topological gap opening without symmetry breaking from dynamical quantum correlations

Paoletti F., Fanfarillo L., Topological phase transitions are typically associated with the formation of gapless states. Spontaneous symmetry breaking can lead to a gap opening, thereby obliterating the topological nature of the system. Here we highlight a completely different destiny for a topological transition in the presence of interaction. Solving a Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model with local interaction, we show that dynamical quantum fluctuations can lead to the opening of a gap without any symmetry breaking. As we vary the interaction and the bare mass of the model, the continuous gapless topological transition turns into a first-order one, associated with the presence of a massive Dirac fermion at the transition point, showing a Gross-Neveu critical behavior near the quantum critical endpoint. We identify the gap opening as a condensed matter analog of the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism of mass generation.