Local versus nonlocal correlation effects in interacting quantum spin Hall insulators

Crippa L., Amaricci A., Adler S., Sangiovanni G., The impact of Coulomb interaction on the electronic properties of a quantum spin Hall insulator is studied using quantum cluster methods, disentangling local from nonlocal effects. We identify different regimes, according to the value of the bare mass term, characterized by drastically different self-energy contributions. For small mass, nonlocal correlations start to be important and eventually dominate over local ones when getting close enough to the zero-mass semimetallic line. For intermediate and large mass, local correlation effects outweigh nonlocal corrections, leading to a first-order topological phase transition, in agreement with previous predictions.

Determination of the critical exponents in dissipative phase transitions: Coherent anomaly approach

Jin J., He W.B., Iemini F., Ferreira D., Wang Y.D., Chesi S., We propose a generalization of the coherent anomaly method to extract the critical exponents of a phase transition occurring in the steady-state of an open quantum many-body system. The method, originally developed by Suzuki [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 55, 4205 (1986)JUPSAU0031-901510.1143/JPSJ.55.4205] for equilibrium systems, is based on the scaling properties of the singularity in the response functions determined through cluster mean-field calculations. We apply this method to the dissipative transverse-field Ising model and the dissipative XYZ model in two dimensions obtaining convergent results already with small clusters.

Thermal dynamics and electronic temperature waves in layered correlated materials

Mazza G., Gandolfi M., Understanding the mechanism of heat transfer in nanoscale devices remains one of the greatest intellectual challenges in the field of thermal dynamics, by far the most relevant under an applicative standpoint. When thermal dynamics is confined to the nanoscale, the characteristic timescales become ultrafast, engendering the failure of the common description of energy propagation and paving the way to unconventional phenomena such as wave-like temperature propagation. Here, we explore layered strongly correlated materials as a platform to identify and control unconventional electronic heat transfer phenomena. We demonstrate that these systems can be tailored to sustain a wide spectrum of electronic heat transport regimes, ranging from ballistic, to hydrodynamic all the way to diffusive. Within the hydrodynamic regime, wave-like temperature oscillations are predicted up to room temperature. The interaction strength can be exploited as a knob to control the dynamics of temperature waves as well as the onset of different thermal transport regimes.

Entropic barriers as a reason for hardness in both classical and quantum algorithms

Bellitti M., Ricci-Tersenghi F., We study both classical and quantum algorithms to solve a hard optimization problem, namely 3-XORSAT on 3-regular random graphs. By introducing a new quasi-greedy algorithm that is not allowed to jump over large energy barriers, we show that the problem hardness is mainly due to entropic barriers. We study, both analytically and numerically, several optimization algorithms, finding that entropic barriers affect in a similar way classical local algorithms and quantum annealing. For the adiabatic algorithm, the difficulty we identify is distinct from that of tunneling under large barriers, but does, nonetheless, give rise to exponential running (annealing) times.

Fast collective oscillations and clustering phenomena in an antiferromagnetic mean-field model

Vesperini A., Franzosi R., Ruffo S., We study the out-of-equilibrium properties of the antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian Mean-Field model at low energy. In this regime, the Hamiltonian dynamics exhibits the presence of a long-lived metastable state where the rotators are gathered in a bicluster. This state is not predicted by equilibrium statistical mechanics in the microcanonical ensemble. Performing a low kinetic energy approximation, we derive the explicit expression of the magnetization vector as a function of time. We find that the latter displays coherent oscillations, and we show numerically that the probability distribution for its phase is bimodal or quadrimodal. We then look at the individual rotator dynamics as a motion in an external time-dependent potential, given by the magnetization. This dynamics exhibits two distinct time scales, with the fast one associated to the oscillations of the global magnetization vector. Performing an average over the fast oscillations, we derive an expression for the effective force acting on the individual rotator. This force is always bimodal, and determines a low frequency oscillation of the rotators. Our approach leads to a self-consistent theory linking the time-dependence of the magnetization to the motion of the rotators, providing a heuristic explanation for the formation of the bicluster.

Symmetry-resolved entanglement detection using partial transpose moments

Neven A., Carrasco J., Vitale V., Kokail C., Elben A., We propose an ordered set of experimentally accessible conditions for detecting entanglement in mixed states. The k-th condition involves comparing moments of the partially transposed density operator up to order k. Remarkably, the union of all moment inequalities reproduces the Peres-Horodecki criterion for detecting entanglement. Our empirical studies highlight that the first four conditions already detect mixed state entanglement reliably in a variety of quantum architectures. Exploiting symmetries can help to further improve their detection capabilities. We also show how to estimate moment inequalities based on local random measurements of single state copies (classical shadows) and derive statistically sound confidence intervals as a function of the number of performed measurements. Our analysis includes the experimentally relevant situation of drifting sources, i.e. non-identical, but independent, state copies.

Testing the foundation of quantum physics in space via Interferometric and non-interferometric experiments with mesoscopic nanoparticles

Gasbarri G., Belenchia A., Carlesso M., Donadi S., Quantum technologies are opening novel avenues for applied and fundamental science at an impressive pace. In this perspective article, we focus on the promises coming from the combination of quantum technologies and space science to test the very foundations of quantum physics and, possibly, new physics. In particular, we survey the field of mesoscopic superpositions of nanoparticles and the potential of interferometric and non-interferometric experiments in space for the investigation of the superposition principle of quantum mechanics and the quantum-to-classical transition. We delve into the possibilities offered by the state-of-the-art of nanoparticle physics projected in the space environment and discuss the numerous challenges, and the corresponding potential advancements, that the space environment presents. In doing this, we also offer an ab-initio estimate of the potential of space-based interferometry with some of the largest systems ever considered and show that there is room for tests of quantum mechanics at an unprecedented level of detail.

Quantum state features of the FEL radiation from the occupation number statistics

The coherence of free-electron laser (FEL) radiation has so far been accessed mainly through first and second order correlation functions. Instead, we propose to reconstruct the energy state occupation number distribution of FEL radiation, avoiding the photo-counting drawbacks with high intensities, by means of maximum likelihood techniques based on the statistics of no-click events. Though the ultimate goal regards the FEL radiation statistical features, the interest of the proposal also resides in its applicability to any process of harmonic generation from a coherent light pulse, ushering in the study of the preservation of quantum features in general non-linear optical processes.

Gravity as a classical channel and its dissipative generalization

Di Bartolomeo G., Carlesso M., Recent models formulated by Kafri, Taylor, and Milburn and by Tilloy and Diosi describe the gravitational interaction through a continuous measurement and feedback protocol. In such a way, although gravity is ultimately treated as classical, they can reconstruct the proper quantum gravitational interaction at the level of the master equation for the statistical operator. Following this procedure, the price to pay is the presence of decoherence effects leading to an asymptotic energy divergence. One does not expect the latter in isolated systems. Here, we propose a dissipative generalization of these models. We show that, in these generalizations, in the long time limit, the system thermalizes to an effective finite temperature.

False vacuum decay in quantum spin chains

Lagnese G., Surace F.M., Kormos M., The false vacuum decay has been a central theme in physics for half a century with applications to cosmology and to the theory of fundamental interactions. This fascinating phenomenon is even more intriguing when combined with the confinement of elementary particles. Due to the astronomical timescales involved, the research has so far focused on theoretical aspects of this decay. The purpose of this Letter is to show that the false vacuum decay is accessible to current optical experiments as quantum analog simulators of spin chains with confinement of the elementary excitations, which mimic the high energy phenomenology but in one spatial dimension. We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of the false vacuum in a quantum Ising chain and in an XXZ ladder. The false vacuum is the metastable state that arises in the ferromagnetic phase of the model when the symmetry is explicitly broken by a longitudinal field. This state decays through the formation of "bubbles"of true vacuum. Using infinite volume time evolving block decimation (iTEBD) simulations, we are able to study the real-time evolution in the thermodynamic limit and measure the decay rate of local observables. We find that the numerical results agree with the theoretical prediction that the decay rate is exponentially small in the inverse of the longitudinal field.

Topological van Hove singularities at phase transitions in Weyl metals

Fontana P., Burrello M., We show that in three-dimensional (3D) topological metals, a subset of the van Hove singularities of the density of states sits exactly at the transitions between topological and trivial gapless phases. We may refer to these as topological van Hove singularities. By investigating two minimal models, we show that they originate from energy saddle points located between Weyl points with opposite chiralities, and we illustrate their topological nature through their magnetotransport properties in the ballistic regime. We exemplify the relation between van Hove singularities and topological phase transitions in Weyl systems by analyzing the 3D Hofstadter model, which offers a simple and interesting playground to consider different kinds of Weyl metals and to understand the features of their density of states. In this model, as a function of the magnetic flux, the occurrence of topological van Hove singularities can be explicitly checked.

Randomness of Möbius coefficients and Brownian motion: Growth of the Mertens function and the Riemann hypothesis

The validity of the Riemann hypothesis (RH) on the location of the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann ζ-function is directly related to the growth of the Mertens function M(x) = ςk=1xμ (k), where μ(k) is the Möbius coefficient of the integer k; the RH is indeed true if the Mertens function goes asymptotically as M(x) ∼ x 1/2+ , where is an arbitrary strictly positive quantity. We argue that this behavior can be established on the basis of a new probabilistic approach based on the global properties of the Mertens function, namely, based on reorganizing globally in distinct blocks the terms of its series. With this aim, we focus attention on the square-free numbers and we derive a series of probabilistic results concerning the prime number distribution along the series of square-free numbers, the average number of prime divisors, the Erdős-Kac theorem for square-free numbers, etc. These results point to the conclusion that the Mertens function is subject to a normal distribution as much as any other random walk. We also present an argument in favor of the thesis that the validity of the RH also implies the validity of the generalized RH for the Dirichlet L-functions. Next we study the local properties of the Mertens function, i.e. its variation induced by each Möbius coefficient restricted to the square-free numbers. Motivated by the natural curiosity to see how closely to a purely random walk any sub-sequence is extracted by the sequence of the Möbius coefficients for the square-free numbers, we perform a massive statistical analysis on these coefficients, applying to them a series of randomness tests of increasing precision and complexity; together with several frequency tests within a block, the list of our tests includes those for the longest run of ones in a block, the binary matrix rank test, the discrete Fourier transform test, the non-overlapping template matching test, the entropy test, the cumulative sum test, the random excursion tests, etc, for a total of 18 different tests. The successful outputs of all these tests (each of them with a level of confidence of 99% that all the sub-sequences analyzed are indeed random) can be seen as impressive 'experimental' confirmations of the Brownian nature of the restricted Möbius coefficients and the probabilistic normal law distribution of the Mertens function analytically established earlier. In view of the theoretical probabilistic argument and the large battery of statistical tests, we can conclude that while a violation of the RH is strictly speaking not impossible, it is however extremely improbable.

End-point measurement approach to assess quantum coherence in energy fluctuations

Gherardini S., Belenchia A., Paternostro M., We discuss the role of quantum coherence in the energy fluctuations of open quantum systems. To this aim, we introduce a protocol to which we refer as the end-point measurement scheme, allowing us to define the statistics of energy changes as a function of energy measurements performed only after the evolution of the initial state. At the price of an additional uncertainty on the initial energies, this approach prevents the loss of initial quantum coherences and enables the estimation of their effects on energy fluctuations. We demonstrate our findings by running an experiment on the IBM Quantum Experience superconducting qubit platform.

Quantum Variational Learning of the Entanglement Hamiltonian

Kokail C., Sundar B., Zache T.V., Elben A., Vermersch B., Learning the structure of the entanglement Hamiltonian (EH) is central to characterizing quantum many-body states in analog quantum simulation. We describe a protocol where spatial deformations of the many-body Hamiltonian, physically realized on the quantum device, serve as an efficient variational ansatz for a local EH. Optimal variational parameters are determined in a feedback loop, involving quench dynamics with the deformed Hamiltonian as a quantum processing step, and classical optimization. We simulate the protocol for the ground state of Fermi-Hubbard models in quasi-1D geometries, finding excellent agreement of the EH with Bisognano-Wichmann predictions. Subsequent on-device spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of the entanglement spectrum, which we illustrate for a Fermi Hubbard model in a topological phase.

Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless Phase Transitions with Long-Range Couplings

Giachetti G., Defenu N., Ruffo S., The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition is the paradigmatic example of a topological phase transition without symmetry breaking, where a quasiordered phase, characterized by a power-law scaling of the correlation functions at low temperature, is disrupted by the proliferation of topological excitations above the critical temperature TBKT. In this Letter, we consider the effect of long-range decaying couplings ∼r-2-σ on the BKT transition. After pointing out the relevance of this nontrivial problem, we discuss the phase diagram, which is far richer than the corresponding short-range one. It features - for 7/4<σ<2 - a quasiordered phase in a finite temperature range TcTBKT. The transition temperature Tc displays unique universal features quite different from those of the traditional, short-range XY model. Given the universal nature of our findings, they may be observed in current experimental realizations in 2D atomic, molecular, and optical quantum systems.

Exact entanglement growth of a one-dimensional hard-core quantum gas during a free expansion

Scopa S., Krajenbrink A., We consider the non-equilibrium dynamics of the entanglement entropy of a one-dimensional quantum gas of hard-core particles, initially confined in a box potential at zero temperature. At t = 0 the right edge of the box is suddenly released and the system is let free to expand. During this expansion, the initially correlated region propagates with a non-homogeneous profile, leading to the growth of entanglement entropy. This setting is investigated in the hydrodynamic regime, with tools stemming from semi-classical Wigner function approach andwith recent developments of quantum fluctuating hydrodynamics. Within this framework, the entanglement entropy can be associated to a correlation function of chiral twist-fields of the conformal field theory that lives along the Fermi contour and it can be exactly determined. Our predictions for the entanglement evolution are found in agreement with and generalize previous results in literature based on numerical calculations and heuristic arguments.

Non-equilibrium dynamics of the open quantum O(n)-model with non-Markovian noise: Exact results

Wald S., Henkel M., The collective and purely relaxational dynamics of quantum many-body systems after a quench at temperature T = 0, from a disordered state to various phases is studied through the exact solution of the quantum Langevin equation of the spherical and the O(n)-model in the limit n → ∞. The stationary state of the quantum dynamics is shown to be a non-equilibrium state. The quantum spherical and the quantum O(n)-model for n → ∞ are in the same dynamical universality class. The long-time behaviour of single-time and two-time correlation and response functions is analysed and the universal exponents which characterise quantum coarsening and quantum ageing are derived. The importance of the non-Markovian long-time memory of the quantum noise is elucidated by comparing it with an effective Markovian noise having the same scaling behaviour and with the case of non-equilibrium classical dynamics.

Finite-temperature critical behavior of long-range quantum Ising models

Lazo E.G., Heyl M., We study the phase diagram and critical properties of quantum Ising chains with longrange ferromagnetic interactions decaying in a power-law fashion with exponent α, in regimes of direct interest for current trapped ion experiments. Using large-scale path integral Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate both the ground-state and the nonzerotemperature regimes. We identify the phase boundary of the ferromagnetic phase and obtain accurate estimates for the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperatures. We further determine the critical exponents of the respective transitions. Our results are in agreement with existing predictions for interaction exponents α > 1 up to small deviations in some critical exponents. We also address the elusive regime α < 1, where we find that the universality class of both the ground-state and nonzero-temperature transition is consistent with the mean-field limit at α = 0. Our work not only contributes to the understanding of the equilibrium properties of long-range interacting quantum Ising models, but can also be important for addressing fundamental dynamical aspects, such as issues concerning the open question of thermalization in such models.

Fragility of classical Hamiltonian period doubling to quantum fluctuations

Khasseh R., Russomanno A., We add quantum fluctuations to a classical period-doubling Hamiltonian time crystal, replacing the N classical interacting angular momenta with quantum spins of size l. The full permutation symmetry of the Hamiltonian allows a mapping to a bosonic model and the application of exact diagonalization for a quite large system size. In the thermodynamic limit N→∞ the model is described by a system of Gross-Pitaevskii equations whose classical-chaos properties closely mirror the finite-N quantum chaos. For N→∞, and l finite, Rabi oscillations mark the absence of persistent period doubling, which is recovered for l→∞ with Rabi-oscillation frequency tending exponentially to 0. For the chosen initial conditions, we can represent this model in terms of Pauli matrices and apply the discrete truncated Wigner approximation. For finite l this approximation reproduces no Rabi oscillations but correctly predicts the absence of period doubling. Our results show the instability of time-Translation symmetry breaking in this classical system even to the smallest quantum fluctuations, because of tunneling effects.

Symmetry resolved relative entropies and distances in conformal field theory

Capizzi L., We develop a systematic approach to compute the subsystem trace distances and relative entropies for subsystem reduced density matrices associated to excited states in different symmetry sectors of a 1+1 dimensional conformal field theory having an internal U(1) symmetry. We provide analytic expressions for the charged moments corresponding to the resolution of both relative entropies and distances for general integer n. For the relative entropies, these formulas are manageable and the analytic continuation to n = 1 can be worked out in most of the cases. Conversely, for the distances the corresponding charged moments become soon untreatable as n increases. A remarkable result is that relative entropies and distances are the same for all symmetry sectors, i.e. they satisfy entanglement equipartition, like the entropies. Moreover, we exploit the OPE expansion of composite twist fields, to provide very general results when the subsystem is a single interval much smaller than the total system. We focus on the massless compact boson and our results are tested against exact numerical calculations in the XX spin chain.