Spin-1/2 Ising–Heisenberg Cairo pentagonal model in the presence of an external magnetic field: effect of Landé g-factors

Arian Zad H., Abstract: In the present paper, a study of the magnetic properties of a spin-1/2 Ising–Heisenberg Cairo pentagonal structure is presented. The model has been investigated in [F.C. Rodrigues, S.M. de Souza, O. Rojas, Ann. Phys. 379, 1 (2017)] in the absence of external magnetic field. Here, we consider the effects of an external tunable magnetic field. By using the transfer matrix approach, we investigate the magnetic ground-state phase transition, the low-temperature magnetization process, and how the magnetic field influences the various thermodynamic parameters such as entropy, internal energy and specific heat. It is shown that the model exhibits intermediate magnetization plateaux accompanied by a double-peak in the specific heat curve versus temperature. The position of each magnetization jump is in accordance with the merging and/or separation of the two peaks in the specific heat curve. Considering different g-factors for the nodal Ising spins and spin dimers also results in arising different intermediate plateaux and to remarkable alterations of the thermodynamic properties of the model. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

The nature of the chemical bond in the dicarbon molecule

Genovese C., The molecular dissociation energy has often been explained and discussed in terms of singlet bonds, formed by bounded pairs of valence electrons. In this work, we use a highly correlated resonating valence bond ansatz, providing a consistent paradigm for the chemical bond, where spin fluctuations are shown to play a crucial role. Spin fluctuations are known to be important in magnetic systems and correspond to the zero point motion of the spin waves emerging from a magnetic broken symmetry state. Within our ansatz, a satisfactory description of the carbon dimer is determined by the magnetic interaction of two carbon atoms with antiferromagnetically ordered S = 1 magnetic moments. This is a first step that, thanks to the highly scalable and efficient quantum Monte Carlo techniques, may open the door for understanding challenging complex systems containing atoms with large spins (e.g., transition metals).

Controlling particle currents with evaporation and resetting from an interval

Tucci G., We investigate the Brownian diffusion of particles in one spatial dimension and in the presence of finite regions within which particles can either evaporate or be reset to a given location. For open boundary conditions, we highlight the appearance of a Brownian yet non-Gaussian diffusion: At long times, the particle distribution is non-Gaussian but its variance grows linearly in time. Moreover, we show that the effective diffusion coefficient of the particles in such systems is bounded from below by 1-2/π times their bare diffusion coefficient. For periodic boundary conditions, i.e., for diffusion on a ring with resetting, we demonstrate a "gauge invariance"of the spatial particle distribution for different choices of the resetting probability currents, in both stationary and nonstationary regimes. Finally, we apply our findings to a stochastic biophysical model for the motion of RNA polymerases during transcriptional pauses, deriving analytically the distribution of the length of cleaved RNA transcripts and the efficiency of RNA cleavage in backtrack recovery.

Dynamics of large deviations in the hydrodynamic limit: Noninteracting systems

Perfetto G., We study the dynamics of the statistics of the energy transferred across a point along a quantum chain which is prepared in the inhomogeneous initial state obtained by joining two identical semi-infinite parts thermalized at two different temperatures. In particular, we consider the transverse field Ising and harmonic chains as prototypical models of noninteracting fermionic and bosonic excitations, respectively. Within the so-called hydrodynamic limit of large space-time scales we first discuss the mean values of the energy density and current, and then, aiming at the statistics of fluctuations, we calculate exactly the scaled cumulant generating function of the transferred energy. From the latter, the evolution of the associated large deviation function is obtained. A natural interpretation of our results is provided in terms of a semiclassical picture of quasiparticles moving ballistically along classical trajectories. Similarities and differences between the transferred energy scaled cumulant and the large deviation functions in the cases of noninteracting fermions and bosons are discussed.

Synergy between Hund-Driven Correlations and Boson-Mediated Superconductivity

Fanfarillo L., Valli A., Multiorbital systems such as the iron-based superconductors provide a new avenue to attack the long-standing problem of superconductivity in strongly correlated systems. In this work we study the superconductivity driven by a generic bosonic mechanism in a multiorbital model including the full dynamical electronic correlations induced by the Hubbard U and the Hund's coupling. We show that superconductivity survives much more in a Hund's metal than in an ordinary correlated metal with the same degree of correlation. The redistribution of spectral weight characteristic of the Hund's metal reflects also in the enhancement of the orbital-selective character of the superconducting gaps, in agreement with experiments in iron-based superconductors.

Erratum: Measurement-induced criticality in (2+1)-dimensional hybrid quantum circuits (Physical Review B (2020) 102 (014315) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.014315)

Turkeshi X., In our paper, we incorrectly reported that singular value decomposition (SVD) directly evaluates the entanglement entropy of a stabilizer state generated by the dynamics we are interested in. In fact, SVD only provides a rigorous upper bound to the entropy. 1 We are grateful to Y. Li and M. P. A. Fisher for correspondence that elucidated this aspect. Specifically, in the published version of the paper we compute entanglement of the stabilizer state by means of the Hamma-Ionicioiu-Zanardi theorem. This requires the computation of the matrix rank. SVD computes the value of the rank in the field of real numbers R, while due to the algebraic structure of the stabilizer group, we should have computed the rank for the field F2.We observe that any matrix A with binary elements aij=0,1 satisfies.

Bath-assisted transport in a three-site spin chain: Global versus local approach

Within the standard weak-coupling limit, the reduced dynamics of open quantum spin chains with their two end spins coupled to two distinct heat baths at different temperatures are mainly derived using the so-called global and local approaches, in which, respectively, the spin self-interaction is and is not taken into account. In order to compare the differences between the two regimes, we concentrate on an open three-site XX spin chain, provide systematic techniques to address the global and local asymptotic states, and then compare the asymptotic spin-transport features by studying the spin flux through the middle site. Based on the analytical expressions of the stationary states in the two regimes, we find that the local approach misses important global effects emerging as spin sink and source terms that can only be due to nonnegligible interspin interactions. Moreover, we show that the local asympotic transport features cannot be recovered from the global ones by letting the interspin coupling vanish, thus pointing to the existence of different coupling ranges where only one approach is physically tenable and possibly a region where the two descriptions may coexist.

Osmates on the Verge of a Hund's-Mott Transition: The Different Fates of NaOsO3 and LiOsO3

Springer D., Kim B., Liu P., Khmelevskyi S., Adler S., We clarify the origin of the strikingly different spectroscopic properties of the chemically similar compounds NaOsO3 and LiOsO3. Our first-principle, many-body analysis demonstrates that the highly sensitive physics of these two materials is controlled by their proximity to an adjacent Hund's-Mott insulating phase. Although 5d oxides are mildly correlated, we show that the cooperative action of intraorbital repulsion and Hund's exchange becomes the dominant physical mechanism in these materials if their t2g shell is half filled. Small material specific details hence result in an extremely sharp change of the electronic mobility, explaining the surprisingly different properties of the paramagnetic high-temperature phases of the two compounds.

Landau-Fermi liquids without quasiparticles

Landau-Fermi liquid theory is conventionally believed to hold whenever the interacting single-particle density of states develops a δ-like component at the Fermi surface, which is associated with quasiparticles. Here we show that a microscopic justification can be actually achieved under more general circumstances, even in the case where coherent quasiparticles are totally missing and the interacting single-particle density of states vanishes at the chemical potential as a consequence of a pole singularity in the self-energy.

Phase-Preserving Linear Amplifiers Not Simulable by the Parametric Amplifier

Chia A., Hajdušek M., Nair R., It is commonly accepted that a parametric amplifier can simulate a phase-preserving linear amplifier regardless of how the latter is realized [C. M. Caves et al., Phys. Rev. A 86, 063802 (2012)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.86.063802]. If true, this reduces all phase-preserving linear amplifiers to a single familiar model. Here we disprove this claim by constructing two counterexamples. A detailed discussion of the physics of our counterexamples is provided. It is shown that a Heisenberg-picture analysis facilitates a microscopic explanation of the physics. This also resolves a question about the nature of amplifier-added noise in degenerate two-photon amplification.

Continuous spontaneous localization reduction rate for rigid bodies

Ferialdi L., In the context of spontaneous wave function collapse models, we investigate the properties of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) collapse rate for rigid bodies in a superposition of two states located at different places. By exploiting the Euler-Maclaurin formula, we show that for standard matter the rate for a continuous mass distribution accurately reproduces the exact rate (i.e., the one for a discrete distribution). We compare the exact rate with previous estimates in the literature and we asses their validity. We find that the reduction rate displays a peculiar mass density difference effect, which we investigate and describe in detail. We show that the recently proposed layering effect is a consequence of the mass density difference effect.

General Correlated Geminal Ansatz for Electronic Structure Calculations: Exploiting Pfaffians in Place of Determinants

Genovese C., Shirakawa T., Nakano K., We propose here a single Pfaffian correlated variational ansatz that dramatically improves the accuracy with respect to the single determinant one, while remaining at a similar computational cost. A much larger correlation energy is indeed determined by the most general two electron pairing function, including both singlet and triplet channels, combined with a many-body Jastrow factor, including all possible spin-spin, spin-density, and density-density terms. The main technical ingredient to exploit this accuracy is the use of the Pfaffian for antisymmetrizing a highly correlated pairing function, thus recovering the Fermi statistics for electrons with an affordable computational cost. Moreover, the application of the diffusion Monte Carlo, within the fixed node approximation, allows us to obtain very accurate binding energies for the first preliminary calculations reported in this study: C2, N2, and O2 and the benzene molecule. This is promising and remarkable, considering that they represent extremely difficult molecules even for computationally demanding multideterminant approaches, and opens therefore the way for realistic and accurate electronic simulations with an algorithm scaling at most as the fourth power of the number of electrons.

Nonergodic behavior of the clean Bose-Hubbard chain

Russomanno A., Fava M., We study ergodicity breaking in the clean Bose-Hubbard chain for small hopping strength. We see the existence of a nonergodic regime by means of indicators as the half-chain entanglement entropy of the eigenstates, the average level spacing ratio, the properties of the eigenstate-expectation distribution of the correlation and the scaling of the inverse participation ratio averages. We find that this ergodicity breaking is different from many-body localization because the average half-chain entanglement entropy of the eigenstates obeys volume law. This ergodicity breaking appears unrelated to the spectrum being organized in quasidegenerate multiplets at small hopping and finite system sizes, so in principle, it can survive also for larger system sizes. We find that some imbalance oscillations in time which could mark the existence of glassy behavior in space are well described by the dynamics of a single symmetry-breaking doublet and quantitatively captured by a perturbative effective XXZ model. We show that the amplitude of these oscillations vanishes in the large-size limit. Our findings are numerically obtained for systems for L<12. Extrapolations of our scalings to larger system sizes should be taken with care, as discussed in the paper.

Determinant formula for the field form factor in the anyonic Lieb-Liniger model

Piroli L., Scopa S., We derive an exact formula for the field form factor in the anyonic Lieb-Liniger model, valid for arbitrary values of the interaction c, anyonic parameter κ, and number of particles N. Analogously to the bosonic case, the form factor is expressed in terms of the determinant of an N × N matrix, whose elements are rational functions of the Bethe quasimomenta but explicitly depend on κ. The formula is efficient to evaluate, and provide an essential ingredient for several numerical and analytical calculations. Its derivation consists of three steps. First, we show that the anyonic form factor is equal to the bosonic one between two special off-shell Bethe states, in the standard Lieb-Liniger model. Second, we characterize its analytic properties and provide a set of conditions that uniquely specify it. Finally, we show that our determinant formula satisfies these conditions.

Geometric properties of adiabatic quantum thermal machines

Bhandari B., Alonso P.T., Taddei F., Von Oppen F., We present a general unified approach for the study of quantum thermal machines, including both heat engines and refrigerators, operating under periodic adiabatic driving and in contact with thermal reservoirs kept at different temperatures. We show that many observables characterizing this operating mode and the performance of the machine are of geometric nature. Heat-work conversion mechanisms and dissipation of energy can be described, respectively, by the antisymmetric and symmetric components of a thermal geometric tensor defined in the space of time-dependent parameters generalized to include the temperature bias. The antisymmetric component can be identified as a Berry curvature, while the symmetric component defines the metric of the manifold. We show that the operation of adiabatic thermal machines, and consequently also their efficiency, are intimately related to these geometric aspects. We illustrate these ideas by discussing two specific cases: a slowly driven qubit asymmetrically coupled to two bosonic reservoirs kept at different temperatures, and a quantum dot driven by a rotating magnetic field and strongly coupled to electron reservoirs with different polarizations. Both examples are already amenable for experimental verification.

Weak-ergodicity-breaking via lattice supersymmetry

Surace F.M., Giudici G., We study the spectral properties of D-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric lattice models. We find systematic departures from the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) in the form of a degenerate set of ETH-violating supersymmetric (SUSY) doublets, also referred to as many-body scars, that we construct analytically. These states are stable against arbitrary SUSY-preserving perturbations, including inhomogeneous couplings. For the specific case of two-leg ladders, we provide extensive numerical evidence that shows how those states are the only ones violating the ETH, and discuss their robustness to SUSY-violating perturbations. Our work suggests a generic mechanism to stabilize quantum many-body scars in lattice models in arbitrary dimensions.

Topological entanglement properties of disconnected partitions in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model

Micallo T., Vitale V., We study the disconnected entanglement entropy, SD, of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. SD is a combination of both connected and disconnected bipartite entanglement entropies that removes all area and volume law contributions and is thus only sensitive to the non-local entanglement stored within the ground state manifold. Using analytical and numerical computations, we show that SD behaves like a topological invariant, i.e., it is quantized to either 0 or 2 log(2) in the topologically trivial and non-trivial phases, respectively. These results also hold in the presence of symmetry-preserving disorder. At the second-order phase transition separating the two phases, SD displays a finite-size scaling behavior akin to those of conventional order parameters, that allows us to compute entanglement critical exponents. To corroborate the topological origin of the quantized values of SD, we show how the latter remain quantized after applying unitary time evolution in the form of a quantum quench, a characteristic feature of topological invariants associated with particle-hole symmetry.

Relaxation of the order-parameter statistics and dynamical confinement

Tortora R.J.V., We study the relaxation of the local ferromagnetic order in the quantum Ising chain in a slant field with both longitudinal and transverse components. After preparing the system in a fully polarised state, we analyse the time evolution of the entire probability distribution function (PDF) of the magnetisation within a block of l spins. We first analyse the effect of confinement on the Gaussification of the PDF for large l, showing that the melting of initial order is suppressed when the longitudinal field is aligned to initial magnetisation while it is speed up when it is in the opposite direction. Then we study the thermalisation dynamics. In the paramagnetic region, the PDF quickly shows thermal features. Conversely, in the ferromagnetic phase, when confinement takes place, the relaxation suffers a typical slowing down which depends on the interplay between the strength of the longitudinal field, the density of excitations, and the direction of the initial polarisation. Even when the initial magnetisation is aligned oppositely to the longitudinal field, confinement prevents thermalisation in the accessible timescale, as it is neatly bared by the PDF.

Entanglement Hamiltonians for non-critical quantum chains

Eisler V., Di Giulio G., We study the entanglement Hamiltonian for finite intervals in infinite quantum chains for two different free-particle systems: coupled harmonic oscillators and fermionic hopping models with dimerization. Working in the ground state, the entanglement Hamiltonian describes again free bosons or fermions and is obtained from the correlation functions via high-precision numerics for up to several hundred sites. Far away from criticality, the dominant on-site and nearest-neighbour terms have triangular profiles that can be understood from the analytical results for a half-infinite interval. Near criticality, the longer-range couplings, although small, lead to a more complex picture. A comparison between the exact spectra and entanglement entropies and those resulting from the dominant terms in the Hamiltonian is also reported.

Entanglement in indistinguishable particle systems

For systems consisting of distinguishable particles, there exists an agreed upon notion of entanglement which is fundamentally based on the possibility of addressing individually each one of the constituent parties. Instead, the indistinguishability of identical particles hinders their individual addressability and has prompted diverse, sometimes discordant definitions of entanglement. In the present review, we provide a comparative analysis of the relevant existing approaches, which is based on the characterization of bipartite entanglement in terms of the behaviour of correlation functions. Such a point of view provides a fairly general setting where to discuss the presence of non-local effects; it is performed in the light of the following general consistency criteria: (i) entanglement corresponds to non-local correlations and cannot be generated by local operations; (ii) when, by “freezing” suitable degrees of freedom, identical particles can be effectively distinguished, their entanglement must reduce to the one that holds for distinguishable particles; (iii) in absence of other quantum resources, only entanglement can outperform classical information protocols. These three requests provide a setting that allows to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the existing approaches to indistinguishable particle entanglement and to contribute to the current understanding of such a crucial issue. Indeed, they can be classified into five different classes: four hinging on the notion of particle and one based on that of physical modes. We show that only the latter approach is consistent with all three criteria, each of the others indeed violating at least one of them.