A feasible path for the use of ferromagnetic josephson junctions in quantum circuits: The ferro-transmon

Massarotti D., Ahmad H.G., Satariano R., Ferraiuolo R., Di Palma L., Mastrovito P., Serpico G., Levochkina A., Caruso R., Miano A., Arzeo M., Ausanio G., Granata C., Lucignano P., Montemurro D., Parlato L., Vettoliere A., We discuss the capabilities of ferromagnetic (F) Josephson junctions (JJs) in a variety of layouts and configurations. The main goal is to demonstrate the potential of these hybrid JJs to disclose new physics and the possibility to integrate them in superconducting classical and quantum electronics for various applications. The feasible path towards the use of ferromagnetic Josephson junctions in quantum circuits starts from experiments demonstrating macroscopic quantum tunneling in NbN/GdN/NbN junctions with ferro-insulator barriers and with triplet components of the supercurrent, supported by a self-consistent electrodynamic characterization as a function of the barrier thickness. This has inspired further studies on tunnel ferromagnetic junctions with a different layout and promoted the first generation of ferromagnetic Al-based JJs, specifically Al/AlOx/Al/Py/Al. This layout takes advantage of the capability to integrate the ferromagnetic layer in the junction without affecting the quality of the superconducting electrodes and of the tunnel barrier. The high quality of the devices paves the way for the possible implementation of Al tunnel-ferromagnetic JJs in superconducting quantum circuits. These achievements have promoted the notion of a novel type of qubit incorporating ferromagnetic JJs. This qubit is based on a transmon design featuring a tunnel JJ in parallel with a ferromagnetic JJ inside a SQUID loop capacitively coupled to a superconducting readout resonator. The effect of an external RF field on the magnetic switching processes of ferromagnetic JJs has been also investigated.

Efficient computational screening of strongly correlated materials: Multiorbital phenomenology within the ghost Gutzwiller approximation

Mejuto-Zaera C., The theoretical description of strongly correlated materials relies on the ability to simultaneously capture, on equal footing, the different competing energy scales. Unfortunately, existing approaches are either typically extremely computationally demanding, making systematic screenings of correlated materials challenging or are limited to a subset of observables of interest. The recently developed ghost Gutzwiller ansatz (gGut) has shown great promise to remedy this dichotomy. It is based on a self-consistency condition around the comparatively simple static one-particle reduced density matrix, yet has been shown to provide accurate static and dynamical observables in one-band systems. In this work, we investigate its potential role in the modeling of correlated materials, by applying it to several multiorbital lattice models. Our results confirm the accuracy at lower computational cost of the gGut, and show promise for its application to materials research.

Collapse Dynamics Are Diffusive

Donadi S., Ferialdi L., Noninterferometric experiments have been successfully employed to constrain models of spontaneous wave function collapse, which predict a violation of the quantum superposition principle for large systems. These experiments are grounded on the fact that, according to these models, the dynamics is driven by noise that, besides collapsing the wave function in space, generates a diffusive motion with characteristic signatures, which, though small, can be tested. The noninterferometric approach might seem applicable only to those models that implement the collapse through noisy dynamics, not to any model, that collapses the wave function in space. Here, we show that this is not the case: under reasonable assumptions, any collapse dynamics (in space) is diffusive. Specifically, we prove that any space-translation covariant dynamics that complies with the no-signaling constraint, if collapsing the wave function in space, must change the average momentum of the system and/or its spread.

Entanglement generation through Markovian feed-back in open two-qubit systems

We discuss the generation and the long-time persistence of entanglement in open two-qubit systems whose reduced dissipative dynamics is not a priori engineered but is instead subjected to filtering and Markovian feedback. In particular, we analytically study (1) whether the latter operations may enhance the environment capability of generating entanglement at short times and (2) whether the generated entanglement survives in the long-time regime. We show that, in the case of particularly symmetric Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad it is possible to fully control the convex set of stationary states of the two-qubit reduced dynamics, therefore the asymptotic behaviour of any initial two-qubit state. We then study the impact of a suitable class of feed-back operations on the considered dynamics.

Taxis of cargo-carrying microswimmers in traveling activity waves(a)

Muzzeddu P.L., Roldán É., Many fascinating properties of biological active matter crucially depend on the capacity of constituting entities to perform directed motion, e.g., molecular motors transporting vesicles inside cells or bacteria searching for food. While much effort has been devoted to mimicking biological functions in synthetic systems, such as transporting a cargo to a targeted zone, theoretical studies have primarily focused on single active particles subject to various spatial and temporal stimuli. Here we study the behavior of a self-propelled particle carrying a passive cargo in a travelling activity wave and show that this active-passive dimer displays a rich, emergent tactic behavior. For cargoes with low mobility, the dimer always drifts in the direction of the wave propagation. For highly mobile cargoes, instead, the dimer can also drift against the traveling wave. The transition between these two tactic behaviors is controlled by the ratio between the frictions of the cargo and the microswimmer. In slow activity waves the dimer can perform an active surfing of the wave maxima, with an average drift velocity equal to the wave speed. These analytical predictions, which we confirm by numerical simulations, might be useful for the future efficient design of bio-hybrid microswimmers.

Finite temperature negativity Hamiltonians of the massless Dirac fermion

Rottoli F., Murciano S., The negativity Hamiltonian, defined as the logarithm of a partially transposed density matrix, provides an operatorial characterisation of mixed-state entanglement. However, so far, it has only been studied for the mixed-state density matrices corresponding to subsystems of globally pure states. Here, we consider as a genuine example of a mixed state the one-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in a system at finite temperature and size. As subsystems, we consider an arbitrary set of disjoint intervals. The structure of the corresponding negativity Hamiltonian resembles the one for the entanglement Hamiltonian in the same geometry: in addition to a local term proportional to the stress-energy tensor, each point is non-locally coupled to an infinite but discrete set of other points. However, when the lengths of the transposed and non-transposed intervals coincide, the structure remarkably simplifies and we retrieve the mild non-locality of the ground state negativity Hamiltonian. We also conjecture an exact expression for the negativity Hamiltonian associated to the twisted partial transpose, which is a Hermitian fermionic matrix. We finally obtain the continuum limit of both the local and bi-local operators from exact numerical computations in free-fermionic chains.

Motion of an electron through vacuum fluctuations

Gundhi A., We study the effects of the electromagnetic vacuum on the motion of a nonrelativistic electron. First we derive the equation of motion for the expectation value of the electron's position operator. We show how this equation has the same form as the classical Abraham-Lorentz equation but, at the same time, is free of the well-known runaway solution. Second, we study decoherence induced by vacuum fluctuations. We show that decoherence due to vacuum fluctuations that appears at the level of the reduced density matrix of the electron, obtained after tracing over the radiation field, does not correspond to actual irreversible loss of coherence.

Quantum phase diagram of high-pressure hydrogen

Monacelli L., Casula M., Nakano K., Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe. However, understanding the properties of dense hydrogen is still an open challenge because—under megabar pressures—the quantum nature of both electrons and protons emerges, producing deviations from the common behaviour of condensed-matter systems. Experiments are challenging and can access only limited observables, and the interplay between electron correlation and nuclear quantum motion makes standard simulations unreliable. Here we present the computed phase diagram of hydrogen and deuterium at low temperatures and high pressures using state-of-the-art methods to describe both many-body electronic correlation and quantum anharmonic motion of protons. Our results show that the long-sought atomic metallic hydrogen phase—predicted to host room-temperature superconductivity—forms at 577(4) GPa. The anharmonic vibrations of nuclei pushes the stability of this phase towards pressures much larger than previous estimates or attained experimental values. Before atomization, molecular hydrogen transforms from a metallic phase (phase III) to another metallic structure that is still molecular (phase VI) at 410(20) GPa. Isotope effects increase the pressures of both transitions by 63 and 32 GPa, respectively. We predict signatures in optical spectroscopy and d.c. conductivity that can be experimentally used to distinguish between the two structural transitions.

Signatures of Dissipation Driven Quantum Phase Transition in Rabi Model

De Filippis G., De Candia A., Di Bello G., Perroni C.A., Cangemi L.M., Nocera A., Sassetti M., By using the worldline Monte Carlo technique, matrix product state, and a variational approach à la Feynman, we investigate the equilibrium properties and relaxation features of the dissipative quantum Rabi model, where a two level system is coupled to a linear harmonic oscillator embedded in a viscous fluid. We show that, in the Ohmic regime, a Beretzinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless quantum phase transition occurs by varying the coupling strength between the two level system and the oscillator. This is a nonperturbative result, occurring even for extremely low dissipation magnitude. By using state-of-the-art theoretical methods, we unveil the features of the relaxation towards the thermodynamic equilibrium, pointing out the signatures of quantum phase transition both in the time and frequency domains. We prove that, for low and moderate values of the dissipation, the quantum phase transition occurs in the deep strong coupling regime. We propose to realize this model by coupling a flux qubit and a damped LC oscillator.

Fluctuations and stability of a fast-driven Otto cycle

Gramajo A.L., Paladino E., Pekola J., We investigate the stochastic dynamics of a thermal machine realized by a fast-driven Otto cycle. By employing a stochastic approach, we find that system coherences strongly affect fluctuations depending on the thermodynamic current. Specifically, we observe an increment in the system instabilities when considering the heat exchanged with the cold bath. On the contrary, the cycle precision improves when the system couples with the hot bath, where thermodynamic fluctuations reduce below the classical thermodynamic uncertainty relation bound. Violation of the classical bound holds even when a dephasing source couples with the system. We also find that coherence suppression not only restores the cycle cooling but also enhances the convergence of fluctuation relations by increasing the entropy production of the reversed process. An additional analysis unveiled that the stochastic sampling required to ensure good statistics increases for the cooling cycle while downsizes for the other protocols. Despite the simplicity of our model, our results provide further insight into thermodynamic relations at the stochastic level.

Symmetry-resolved entanglement in critical non-Hermitian systems

Fossati M., Ares F., The study of entanglement in the symmetry sectors of a theory has recently attracted a lot of attention since it provides better understanding of some aspects of quantum many-body systems. In this paper, we extend this analysis to the case of non-Hermitian models, in which the reduced density matrix ρA may be nonpositive definite and the entanglement entropy negative or even complex. Here we examine in detail the symmetry-resolved entanglement in the ground state of the non-Hermitian Su-Schrieffer-Heeger chain at the critical point, a model that preserves particle number and whose scaling limit is a bc-ghost nonunitary conformal field theory (CFT). By combining bosonization techniques in the field theory and exact lattice numerical calculations, we analytically derive the charged moments of ρA and |ρA|. From them, we can understand the origin of the nonpositiveness of ρA and naturally define a positive-definite reduced density matrix in each charge sector, which gives a well-defined symmetry-resolved entanglement entropy. As a by-product, we also obtain the analytical distribution of the critical entanglement spectrum.

Charge Kondo circuit as a detector for electron-electron interactions in a Luttinger liquid

Nguyen T.K.T., Parafilo A.V., Nguyen H.Q., We investigate the effects of the electron-electron interactions on the quantum transport through a charge Kondo circuit. The setup consists of a quantum dot sandwiched between two leads by two nearly transparent single mode quantum point contacts. The size of the interacting area L in the Luttinger liquid formed in the vicinities of the narrow constrictions is assumed to be much smaller compared to the size of the quantum dot a. We predict that the interplay between the electron-electron interactions in the Luttinger liquid and the fingerprints of the non-Fermi liquid behavior in the vicinity of the two channel Kondo intermediate coupling fixed point allows one to determine the interaction strength through the power-law temperature scaling of the electric conductance.

TREXIO: A file format and library for quantum chemistry

Posenitskiy E., Chilkuri V.G., Ammar A., Hapka M., Pernal K., Shinde R., Landinez Borda E.J., Filippi C., Nakano K., Kohulák O., TREXIO is an open-source file format and library developed for the storage and manipulation of data produced by quantum chemistry calculations. It is designed with the goal of providing a reliable and efficient method of storing and exchanging wave function parameters and matrix elements, making it an important tool for researchers in the field of quantum chemistry. In this work, we present an overview of the TREXIO file format and library. The library consists of a front-end implemented in the C programming language and two different back-ends: a text back-end and a binary back-end utilizing the hierarchical data format version 5 library, which enables fast read and write operations. It is compatible with a variety of platforms and has interfaces for Fortran, Python, and OCaml programming languages. In addition, a suite of tools have been developed to facilitate the use of the TREXIO format and library, including converters for popular quantum chemistry codes and utilities for validating and manipulating data stored in TREXIO files. The simplicity, versatility, and ease of use of TREXIO make it a valuable resource for researchers working with quantum chemistry data.

Quantum annealing for neural network optimization problems: A new approach via tensor network simulations

Lami G., Torta P., Here, we focus on the problem of minimizing complex classical cost functions associated with prototypical discrete neural networks, specifically the paradigmatic Hopfield model and binary perceptron. We show that the adiabatic time evolution of QA can be efficiently represented as a suitable Tensor Network. This representation allows for simple classical simulations, well-beyond small sizes amenable to exact diagonalization techniques. We show that the optimized state, expressed as a Matrix Product State (MPS), can be recast into a Quantum Circuit, whose depth scales only linearly with the system size and quadratically with the MPS bond dimension. This may represent a valuable starting point allowing for further circuit optimization on near-term quantum devices.

Full view on the dynamics of an impurity coupled to two one-dimensional baths

Stefanini M., We consider a model for the motion of an impurity interacting with two parallel, one-dimensional baths, described as two Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid systems. The impurity is able to move along the baths, and to jump from one to the other. We provide a perturbative expression for the evolution of the system when the impurity is injected in one of the baths, with a given wave packet. We obtain an approximation formally of infinite order in the impurity-bath coupling, which allows us to reproduce the orthogonality catastrophe. We monitor and discuss the dynamics of the impurity and its effect on the baths, in particular for a Gaussian wave packet. Besides the motion of the impurity, we also analyze the dynamics of the bath density and momentum density (i.e., the particle current), and show that it fits an intuitive semiclassical interpretation. We also quantify the correlation that is established between the baths by calculating the interbath, equal-time spatial correlation functions of both bath density and momentum, finding a complex pattern. We show that this pattern contains information on both the impurity motion and on the baths, and that these can be unveiled by taking appropriate "slices"of the time evolution.

Mass-driven vortex collisions in flat superfluids

Richaud A., Lamporesi G., Quantum vortices are often endowed with an effective inertial mass, due, for example, to massive particles in their cores. Such "massive vortices"display new phenomena beyond the standard picture of superfluid vortex dynamics, where mass is neglected. In this work, we demonstrate that massive vortices are allowed to collide, as opposed to their massless counterparts. We propose a scheme to generate controllable, repeatable, deterministic collisional events in pairs of quantum vortices. We demonstrate two mass-driven fundamental processes: (i) the annihilation of two counter-rotating vortices and (ii) the merging of two corotating vortices, thus pointing out new mechanisms supporting incompressible-to-compressible kinetic-energy conversion, as well as doubly quantized vortex stabilization in flat superfluids.

Quantum multicritical behavior for coupled optical cavities with driven laser fields

Hu Y., Zhou Y., Luo W., Quantum phase transitions with multicritical points are fascinating phenomena occurring in interacting quantum many-body systems. However, multicritical points predicted by theory have been rarely verified experimentally; finding multicritical points with specific behaviors and realizing their control remains a challenging topic. Here, we propose a system that a quantized light field interacts with a two-level atomic ensemble coupled by microwave fields in optical cavities, which is described by a generalized Dicke model. Multicritical points for the superradiant quantum phase transition are shown to occur. We determine the number and position of these critical points and demonstrate that they can be effectively manipulated through the tuning of system parameters. Particularly, we find that the quantum critical points can evolve into a Lifshitz point (LP) if the Rabi frequency of the light field is modulated periodically in time. Remarkably, the texture of atomic pseudo-spins can be used to characterize the quantum critical behaviors of the system. The magnetic orders of the three phases around the LP, represented by the atomic pseudo-spins, are similar to those of an axial next-nearest-neighboring Ising model. The results reported here are beneficial for unveiling intriguing physics of quantum phase transitions and pave the way towards to find novel quantum multicritical phenomena based on the generalized Dicke model.

Toward Chemical Accuracy Using the Jastrow Correlated Antisymmetrized Geminal Power Ansatz

Raghav A., Maezono R., Hongo K., Herein, we report accurate atomization energy calculations for 55 molecules in the Gaussian-2 (G2) set using lattice regularized diffusion Monte Carlo (LRDMC). We compare the Jastrow-Slater determinant ansatz with a more flexible JsAGPs (Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power with singlet correlation) ansatz. AGPs is built from pairing functions, which explicitly include pairwise correlations among electrons, and hence, this ansatz is expected to be more efficient in recovering the correlation energy. The AGPs wave functions are first optimized at the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) level, which includes both the Jastrow factor and the nodal surface optimization. This is followed by the LRDMC projection of the ansatz. Remarkably, for many molecules, the LRDMC atomization energies obtained using the JsAGPs ansatz reach chemical accuracy (∼1 kcal/mol), and for most other molecules, the atomization energies are accurate within ∼5 kcal/mol. We obtained a mean absolute deviation of 1.6 kcal/mol with JsAGPs and 3.2 kcal/mol with JDFT (Jastrow factor + Slater determinant with DFT orbitals) ansatzes. This work shows the effectiveness of the flexible AGPs ansatz for atomization energy calculations and electronic structure simulations in general.

Coherent control of the orbital occupation driving the insulator-to-metal Mott transition in V2 O3

Franceschini P., Policht V.R., Milloch A., Ronchi A., Mor S., Mellaerts S., Hsu W.F., Pagliara S., Ferrini G., Banfi F., Managing light-matter interactions on timescales faster than the loss of electronic coherence is key for achieving full quantum control of the final products in solid-solid transformations. In this Letter, we demonstrate coherent optical control of the orbital occupation that determines the insulator-to-metal transition in the prototypical Mott insulator V2O3. Selective excitation of a specific interband transition with two phase-locked light pulses manipulates the occupation of the correlated bands in a way that depends on the coherent evolution of the photoinduced superposition of states. A comparison between experimental results and numerical solutions of the optical Bloch equations provides an electronic coherence time on the order of 5 fs. Temperature-dependent experiments suggest that the electronic coherence time is enhanced in the vicinity of the insulator-to-metal transition critical temperature, thus highlighting the role of fluctuations in determining the electronic coherence. These results open different routes to selectively switch the functionalities of quantum materials and coherently control solid-solid electronic transformations.

Spin-Liquid Insulators Can Be Landau's Fermi Liquids

The long search for insulating materials that possess low-energy quasiparticles carrying electron's quantum numbers except charge - inspired by the neutral spin-1/2 excitations, the so-called spinons, exhibited by Anderson's resonating-valence-bond state - seems to have reached a turning point after the discovery of several Mott insulators displaying the same thermal and magnetic properties as metals, including quantum oscillations in a magnetic field. Here, we show that such anomalous behavior is not inconsistent with Landau's Fermi liquid theory of quasiparticles at a Luttinger surface. That is the manifold of zeros within the Brillouin zone of the single-particle Green's function at zero frequency, and which thus defines the spinon Fermi surface conjectured by Anderson.